11 March, 2018

Stephanie Kelton - Economist

An Interview on LEFT OUT

The most recent LEFT OUT episode from Democracy at Work was an interview with Stephanie Kelton, an Economics Professor at Stony Brook University in the US, and it was a revelation!

Some idea of her politics is illustrated by the fact that she was on Bernie Sanders team in his effort to be the Democratic Party's candidate in the recent Presidential Election. But, she is far to the left of that pro-Capitalist Party, and penetrating in her revelations of the real factors acting in a modern Floating-Currency Capitalist Economy. Her position allies her with others, like Hudson and Keen (both of whom have also been interviewed by LEFT OUT), but her emphases, though related to theirs, have been both complementary, and different.

A cornerstone in all three accounts has been the role of Government Debt in driving the economy - for their printing of money, then inserted into available resources in the Economy, delivers a boost that is essential.

For, the basic primary processes, in such an Economy, are the buying of products and services, which are essential for the whole Capitalist monolith to roll forwards: The availability of that insertion to investment in better machinery, training and the rest, always increases productivity and so boosts sales of cheaper goods. So, all of this justifies by the expansion so caused by that initial creation of money.

The usual consensus analogy with a family's Household Budget is a fiction!

They are NOT the same!

In effect, the guaranteeing of future growth by such Government actions, as the initial essential boost, is crucial, and, if successful, then increased future Tax returns will, in time, amply justify that effort and that cost. But, in addition, to such a one-off boost, the most important regular built-in factors, ensuring such developments are due, significantly, to ALL the services that the Government necessarily provides, such as:- 


Health Services and Hospitals

Roads and Transport

Fire Services

Police Forces

Ports and Safety at Sea

Energy Production

Water provision & Sewerage

Care Homes 

...and all the rest, which mightily contribute to the future performance of the Economy - see countries that have none of these, and seemingly have no chance of being able to join the fray, except by paying destitution wages: those Services are NOT just liabilities costing money, but necessary investments in current and future economic prosperity.

In particular, the everywhere -proposed ( or just smuggled-in) vast cuts in all of the above, and, very-damagingly, the privatising of such services, all proposed as helping to solve the current problems, are all clearly just lies!

They are, in fact, delivering the best possible opportunity for driving the wages of the bulk of the population down, while also making them pay for those services transferred into private hands!

Several other amplifying points clearly defined a very different view - for example Tax cuts!

Tax cuts for the poor, means they can buy more, and as there are so many of them, it would indeed stimulate the Economy. On the other hand tax cuts for the rich will not do that: they already have ample resources, more, in fact than ever before, so they certainly wont spend it in a way that will stimulate the Economy: and the myth that they will invest it in increasing investment in wholly new ventures, or in enhancing productivity, is also wrong - they will just take over more companies, and buy back their own company's Stock currently in other people's hands - for that inflates the value of shares and hence their own wealth.

The proof that this is correct, and could very easily be blatantly obvious to ordinary workers, forced the Trump government's Tax Cut to actually include a small cut for the Working class, - knowing that, in the short term, this would be immediately reflected in increased sales, and allow them to claim it was working as claimed, when its real aim is to make the Rich richer!

Another suggestion by Kelton, herself, about the necessary provision of local multi-purpose Health Centres, to be built everywhere. reminded me of my own experience in the 1940's after the Labour's Election Victory! For, they did something similar and it was a great success.

I lived in a desperately poor slum area of Manchester, yet the new Government provided a large children's Health Centre, with Doctors, Dentists, Opticians and Nurses. There were links to all local schools and visiting testers for Eyes, Teeth and Hair to find faults and solve them.

The local "park?", Gorton Park, had no flowers, no Trees or even any Grass, but Bowling Greens were provided, accompanied by an Old Peoples' Centre, with staff and cooking facilities to provide meals, with a warm and comfortable place to meet friends, have meals, play card games, old time dancing and the rest!

And these facilities in the midst of a Victorian slum, transformed the people and the place: it had a culture and a life. Can you imagine what it would have been like without these facilities?

Kelton's suggested Health Centres were also seen as Social Facilities, for all the People, and even for health campaigns as we had had in West Gorton.

[By the way, I was born and brought up in West Gorton, but got to Grammar School, and ended up as a Professor in London University]

07 March, 2018

New Special Issue: Death to Copenhagen!

The demise has been noted, and the last rites said, so the time has come to bury the beast!

The Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory must be laid to rest. Such a final necessary conclusion has definitely arrived, as its remains are beginning to stink!

Three things had to be done to bring things to this long desired state:

First, an alternative coherent, consistent and comprehensive Physical Explanation had to be found for all of the many anomalies of the Copenhagen Interpretation. And, it has been achieved here, by the inclusion of a currently-undetectable, but definitely- existing Universal Substrate, which has been theorised using only known particles.

Second, the illegitimate amalgam of contradictory philosophic stances, underpinned by the Principle of Plurality, and excused by the regular recourse to Pragmatism, had to be totally dismantled and replaced with a new approach to Science.

Third, there has to be an explanation as to why the equations used in Quantum Theory give answers that match the Reality. And, this turns out to be nothing more complex than fitting-up pure formal relations to a situation, by using that situation’s measured data. It is a useful oft-employed pragmatic trick!

But, the real cause of this great impasse was the abandonment of theories which actually delivered the most Objective Content, and replacing such a policy with one which allocated all cause to Pure Forms, so jettisoning things with unsubstantiated features for a “pure and whole description”, that delivered reliable predictions without a trace of the actual causality involved.

Presented here is the long-delayed interment of a long dead idea. To work out where we go next, we must return Physics to a genuine materialism.

This terminating instalment is just the latest in a series of issues of SHAPE Journal to debunk Copenhagen - the rest can be found here:


The Significance of Oscillation

The Nature of Reality and the Significance of Oscillation

Our first conception of Reality was always bound to be of its human-scale entities, eminently stable and persisting forms, processes and products. For what actually exists, at greatly smaller levels, is entirely unavailable to our senses, and because such knowledge did not inform our prosperity and survival, such as is implicit in the "our-scale" things we need and use to survive or even to prosper.

But, what are those larger-scale seeming permanencies? Are they really as permanent as they appear to be? No, they are not! Indeed, the more we investigate them, the more frequently do we encounter much smaller-scale components, which are all in persisting oscillation.

Clearly, opposing effects are simultaneously effecting things, which find some sort of persisting balance in oscillation! We can see less permanent versions of similar oscillations, even at our own macro level, in the vibrations of strings, and even in those of many rigid things, but they soon lose energy to the surrounding atmosphere, and fade away.

The clearly evident vibrations, at our level, are always transient...

What are far more important, are the oscillations at the micro level, which do seem to persist indefinitely, without ever fading away! And, by far the most important form of such oscillations is the orbiting of one body around another, which can be "permanent", and actually exist at every level from the Sub Atomic to the Cosmic.

Various explanations of these orbitings, some of which can last for billions of years, have been suggested, The Cosmic persistences being said to be due to their happening in a vacuum, so there is nothing to carry away the involved energy. While, at the other extreme, in the oscillations of atoms in solids, are said to be actually maintained by the ambient-temperature energy of the surroundings, in intimate contact with the oscillating atoms.

But, what about those orbiting electrons within atoms?

They can be both promoted and demoted, from-and-to external energy sources, BUT NOT in a continuously-changing way: the orbits only exist at particular radii - all others are prohibited (the famed quantisation of orbits).

But, these same properties also persist in the supposed vacuum of Space!

Now, similarly "quantized" orbitings have been created, in the laboratory, and at the macro level, when deliberately made to occur in a liquid Substrate, under surprisingly simple conditions. Now, before anyone gets too excited, may I inform any doubters that ALL that was involved in these experiments was a single silicone oil substrate, and absolutely nothing else!

They were carried out by French physicist Yves Couder: and the writer of this paper has concluded that some of the remarkable phenomena produced there, in particular the orbitings of the produced "Walker entities", were made possible entirely by the presence of Vortices generated within the Substrate, and both maintained and even quantized by the two-way transfers of energy, between such a causing orbit and its produced vortices, due entirely to the constantly repeated orbits, only balancing-out to stability at particular orbit radii!

The significance of this, if true, will be enormous! For, this theorist has already applied these ideas to the quantized orbits in atoms, and also has explained all of the anomalies of the Double Slit Experiments, primarily by the presence of a currently undetectable Universal Substrate.

The Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory is now already mortally wounded! And, many of the inexplicable properties of "Empty Space" are also receiving physical explanations, in terms of this same currently undetectable Substrate.

And, that Universal Substrate isn't just an unsupported speculation, without a detailed explanation of its composition, that too is well under the way, and currently holding up very well.

Though this may be dismissed as unsupported speculation, I have to strongly demur - especially when the alternative, the Copenhagen stance, isn't even a Theory, but merely a formal description, bolstered by a remarkable series of speculations!

No indeed. I take my methods from those of James Clerk Maxwell, who, seeking an explanation of the then also currently undetectable Universal Substrate - The Ether - devised a purely theoretical Analogistic Model, composed of Vortices and "electrical particles", to explain the functions of that substrate, and from it managed to develop his world famous Electromagnetic Equations! He was using the only means available to the investigator deprived of sufficient access to what he required to address a given problem. He knew, very well, that our theories, at best, only ever reflect the amount of Objective Content in our explanations, and that they would inevitably be replaced by others, containing more of that Objective Content thereafter.

So, theories, which explained more than those they replaced, were entirely legitimate in maintaining the necessary ongoing ascent. But, wild speculation was still prohibited - no Gods here!

Instead, the sincere investigator would seek analogues elsewhere in Reality that were already to some valid extent understood, and attempt to weave an effective explanation out of those - That is what is being dome here. That is the postulation of a currently undetectable Universal Substrate, using everything we know about "Empty Space", and as many analogues from known and detectable substrates as possible.
Clearly, if validly established, the universal presence of a material, yet hidden Substrate, will undermine many assumptions in current physical theories.

And, the first giant Sequoia to fall will be the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory.

While the next must be all of those that insist upon totally Empty Space, anywhere!

For, with the kind of Universal Substrate that has been developed to demolish Copenhagen, a rich background for literally all phenomena has been established, and, crucially the supposed cause of Quantization becomes a generally possible physical ground, occurring everywhere.

Add to this the increasing role of both oscillations and orbitings, and their intrinsic participation in interactions with that Substrate, and a whole new approach at all scales becomes crucial.

06 March, 2018

Music and Holism

Cymatics - music meets Yves Couder?

A Gateway to the full Richness of Reality?

As soon as you consider the consequences of a Holistic World, the possibilities as compared with the usual strictly Pluralist standpoint actually explode dramatically into a host of new possibilities - not only into myriads of previously unconsidered alternatives, but also into the effects of sliding amounts of different components in all compound entities and processes, but crucially, in addition, into also including both rich joint interference patterns, and, in gradually varying mixes of different components, even how they produced consequent combined, mutually affecting, and sometimes, significantly, wholly unpredictable results.

Mere quantity changes are expanded into changing qualities, and even the emergent production of the wholly new! The traditional pluralist approach cannot deal with such in any meaningful way: we just have to accept them and find pragmatic ways of including them.

Only the holistic approach admits there is more than mere complication in the emergence of the new, and it isn/t a purely continuous process: sometimes it requires a major dissolution to even make possible a new direction of developments. And as, distinct from the old conceptions causality can act in both directions = from the old to the new, and from the new to the old. What is actually possible leaves the usual assumed combinations of fixed entities and eternal Laws well behind, on the foreshores of the Pluralist World: the majority of the vast oceans of the Holist World remain to be explored!

Now, perhaps surprisingly, the cornerstones all of Mankind's effective intellectual disciplines, ever since the Ancient Greeks, have been entirely dominated by the Principle of Plurality - a definition of the "nature of things" that always treated them all as qualitatively-fixed, which had originally been applied to the shapes of things, and related all existing shapes to combinations of individual Perfect Forms, that is as mere additions of various amounts of several of those always-the-same components. Indeed, the following major successes with such Shapes, enabled not only the construction of a powerful means of dealing with Forms in general, via Mathematics, but, was also exported to form the basis of a new reasoning with Statements of Fact, termed Formal Logic! And, within a generation, was also extended to the early attempts at Science.

Now, elsewhere, by this theorist, this has been rigorously contended as totally ignoring all Qualitative Change, and even the indisputable Evolution of things in a trajectory of qualitative developments.

For, absolutely nothing in nature is a mere Legoland-like constructional puzzle! 

Lego Moog

Clearly, the diametrically opposite Principle of Holism, with its tenet, "Everything affects everything else!" has to be much closer to the Truth, yet it hasn't been comprehensively applied to any of Mankind's Intellectual Disciplines, thus far! But, the flaws of Plurality have long been known, though never recognised as such.

The best early critique was formulated by Hegel, and converted from his idealist approach to a strictly Materialist one by Karl Marx. Yet, a comprehensive application to Physics has never yet been attempted.

Now, this is currently underway by the writer of this paper, but within his other interests, it rapidly became clear that the most appropriate area for a truly Holist Approach to be both demonstrated and even developed, just had to be in Music, and especially in Electronic Music!

After centuries of pluralistic structures in Music, particularly in the West, the forms began to "break the rules", though in a remarkable way still using instruments actually constructed to deliver the old pluralist scales. Yet, certain stringed instruments, without-frets, did allow portamento - sliding between "legal notes". And, an increasing awareness of Oriental music, (particularly that of India) revealed a much richer sonic world, with instruments expressly designed to make portamento an integral part of the artistic expression.

But in the 1960s the musical experimenters using tape loops and early electronic musical instruments, such as those used by Terry Riley with his "In C", also extended the variations to a much wider set of changes, initially at least, NOT totally under the control of the players.

Like the fractal mathematicians watching their constructions, produced by algorithms on computers, generated ever more unpredictable forms, so the musicians did likewise with combined cyclic sounds and very slowly indeed reflected another aspect of Reality.

And, in Physics, the French physicist Yves Couder, focussed primarily upon the properties of liquid media, devised analogistic experiments at the macro level, using a liquid substrate, and absolutely nothing else, to produce persisting entities called Walkers, which began to reveal qualities analogous to those occurring at the Sub Atomic level, including quantised orbits.

Now, those may not seem to be related to our thesis here, but they are! 

The Holist approach is much closer to natural Reality than Plurality, especially when phenomena occur in a Universal effectible and affecting Substrate. And, by far the most controllable discipline involving its propagation and receipt via a medium is MUSIC!

And, it has the property of being directly receiveable by the senses of human beings, especially those with a musical bent. This enables not only the discovery of the wholly new, but when the very instruments of production are directly under the investigators hands, variations can be made to listened to examples explored with immediate and direct feedback.

Now, Terry Riley and his colleagues were performing musicians rather than scientific investigators, so they were making primarily artistic decisions, as to exactly when they came in with their contributions. But, that meant that they did not have a complete idea as to how their contribution would affect the following overall piece.

Other performers since, playing the same "In C", decided to have a random number generator choosing when the various contributions would be added - you could just as easily have scientists choosing when to bring in certain elements to achieve certain sonic effects.  Clearly all three versions would be different, and reveal different "music"! But there can be no doubt that such investigations would go beyond what the more usual kinds of music would deliver.

More on this idea soon...

05 March, 2018

The Substrate

A material explanation for Einstein's space-time?

Properties Outwith and Within

A Matter of Context?

One of the arguments in Einstein's Theory of General Relativity concerns situations in which some system is wholly and uniformly contained within a higher and vastly larger system - like Jupiter and its Moons existing within the Sun-dominated Solar System. For, such a sub-system, as that of Jupiter, then behaves, to some extent, as if no overall super-system were present.

Einstein addressed such situations by talking of elevators and the effects, upon what may be contained within such, by the external contexts. He even considers the situation where the elevator is falling, compared with one with no context at all. His arguments turned me to thinking about my proposed undetectable, yet-definitely-material universal Substrate, for this might be considered in a similar way?

But, as distinct from Einstein's elevators - and their "contexts", my considered case would actually be full of its own composing Substrate Units, so any such local sub-system would be acting within them too. Clearly, this might well not be analogous to Einstein's Thought Experiment!

For, though my suggested Substrate could contain, within all the adjacent units of any contained sub-system, an overall "Gravity Field" - literally equal for all the elements of that sub system, it too would, presumably, also continue to act internally as if NO external field were present.

But, Einstein's Gravity Field was quite definitely continuous!

NOTE: So, in doing the above, am I perhaps just repeating that ancient error revealed by Zeno of Elea in his famous Paradoxes? For, that revealed the possible impasses produced by the two different assumptions of Continuity and Descreteness. So, are we here assuming that same Continuity, as of a "Space-Time Continuum" with its associated infinities, as in the Achilles and the Tortoise Paradox?And, even assuming the presence of the basic function of Propagation in a Substrate, which is entirely without either moving-carrying-units OR elastic interconnections between such units. And, explaining which turned out to be the most difficult problem to solve for that proposed Substrate...

So, returning to my original considerations, from that important diversion, the question seemed to be, "Is that because the very same forces act upon all local elements equally and hence, internally, at least, have no differentiating effects?"

For, the problem is complicated by whether energy is used from real, affected substrate units, OR whether the Substrate is more like Einstein's Space-Time continuum, with its distortion just directing movements in accordance with the "continuum slopes" - in other words involving NO distributed, stored-and-then-driving gravitational energy at all?

As the reader will no doubt have guessed, this theorist is not enamoured of idealist abstractions to explain concrete effects in Reality!

What seems much more likely is that a Universal Substrate of undetectable, but definitely material elements, itself performs the physical effects that Einstein abstractly attributes to his abstract Space-Time Continuum!

BUT, at the same time, such a stance, as I am proposing, does not throw away the clarity often achieved by formal representations of physically existing entities and phenomena, as we use them across, mostly effectively, ALL phenomena. However, it clearly also does not equate them as being identical!

For, such things are merely formal reflections of the real concrete World, but contain only pure mathematical, and hence unchanging, forms, and in order to work, the conditions pertaining MUST be appropriately unchanging. In both experiments and production, such necessary conditions are ensured by the scientists or producers involved, but on a cosmological scale such stability is quite naturally almost exactly delivered!

So, as with all Science and Technology over the last millennia, such formal relations will hold as long as the assumed, and usually such man-made, contexts are maintained.

Now, the Theory of the Universal Substrate, as suggested by this theorist, has already discounted the Copenhagen Interpretations of the confusing phenomena produced by the Double Slit Experiments, and has also even purely physically explained Quantized electron orbits in atoms too - both achieved by the assumption of this particular Universal Substrate. So, clearly, the next major task, looming large, must be the tackling of Einstein's General Relativity, physically, as has already been recently completed for Quantum Theory, and the mapping of the purely formal equations in both areas onto truly physical explanations!

27 February, 2018


The Inevitable Pluralist Demise of Science

The Funeral of a Maths-based Approach!

Since the necessary establishment of a Pluralist Conception of Reality by the Ancient Greeks, what has appeared to be the ever-expanding Understanding of Reality, has, in fact, been only an exploration of a very different, though-related, "world" called Ideality - involving only Pure Forms alone as its sole content - indeed, The Lauded Realm of Mathematics. And, in taking such a blinkered-course, Mankind has embarked upon such a flawed-and-contradictory path, as to both achieve sound technological gains, but, unavoidingly, along with them, a more-often-than-not totally unsound attempt at Understanding that Reality.

The problems reside in the confusion arising from the purely formal Reflections of Reality, delivered via Mathematics - occurring only-as-such in what we call Ideality, and seeing it as the supposed Determining Essence of Reality itself. For, while the real objective, concrete Reality outside includes everything that there is, along with its continuing necessary development: Ideality contains only Pure Forms alone - it is like a purely, formal mirror of Reality, reflecting only its current Forms, moment-by-moment, but absolutely none of its determining Causality.

Clearly, all the displayed patterns are delivered directly by observation and measurement, but none of the reasons for them are even implicitly resident in that data - only purely formal relations!

And, Form can never be a determining cause of anything: it us always only one of the consequences (effects) of such a cause.

For, Causality come from the properties of things, and the transforming processes they produce in given contexts. The student of Pure Forms alone can see patterns in viewed (reflected) space, and can even record sequences of them over time, but the seductive possibilities of the purely formal patterns extracted, and their valuable use in prediction, can, and indeed often do, take precedence over the much more difficult to extract causal relations.

And, significantly, such extracted formal patterns, having now been separated from their physical causes, can now only deliver a disembodied pattern, and hence always conform only to the Principle of Plurality - in which all relations are forever fixed, and, therefore, the only relations immediately evident are the quantitative ones of Mathematics, which can only relate the perfect versions of such forms to one another.

Indeed, it took Mankind thousands of years to even begin to do that!

For, it was necessary, usually, to initially study totally unchanging things - like the Heavens, and then, for literally everywhere else, to isolate situations, then significantly simplify and control them sufficiently, until some pure formalism was clearly evident - and to then extract and study that.

But, to even do that, required absolutely NO qualitative developments or changes to be allowed to occur, for any such extracted relation to be useable. Moreover, if Reality were Holistic (which it is), such extracted relations could never be counted upon outside of their artificially achieved, maintained and necessarily-stable contexts!

So, Mankind had to do two things to get-around the problem:-

1. They always replicated exactly the same conditions as had been achieved in extraction, as essential in any use!

2. They devised the Principle of Plurality to make such ideas "legitimate" theoretically!

So, though the farming of locations enabled great technological success: the pluralistic assumptions in Theory were bound to lead to contradiction, as Hegel had long ago demonstrated in classical Formal Logic.

NOTE: Surprisingly, Neil Turok, of the Perimeter Institute, placed Formal Logic ahead of Mathematics, when in fact it was the achievements of Mathematics that established the pluralistic basis for Formal Logic, and preceded it historically too!

Physicist & Director of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Neil Turok

Indeed, though we rightly laud the vital contributions of the Greeks, we rarely criticise the amalgam of contradictory stances that they thereafter bequeathed to Mankind. For, they certainly added to the prior Pragmatism of early Man, by bringing in both Idealism (from Mathematics) and Materialism (from observational Science). And, when, Plurality was also added to these, the overall stance was unavoidably piecemeal - consisting of many contradictory parts, with their laws only useable in particular contexts!

So, the sequence of Crises in Physics, culminating in the abandonment of Physical Explanation - with the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory, was the direct and unavoidable consequence of the major flaws in the underlying Philosophy of Physics, and the backwards step to purely pragmatic, predictive objectives, on the one hand, and idealistic speculations on the other, which can, and indeed will, solve nothing!

25 February, 2018

Dialectical Physics

Naum Gabo

The Philosophical Premises of a Dialectical Physics

There is a Major Crisis in Theoretical Physics.

In spite of being told, on every hand, that we are witnessing a triumph in the subject, we are being asked to applaud a process that is causing ever-increasing contradictions, so devastating in fact, that already by the Solvay Conference in 1927 the Primary Purpose of Science had been abandoned:

To Explain Physical Reality!

This was deemed henceforth impossible, and wholly replaced by merely Describing-It-Formally and Predicting-Outcomes-without-Causes: and to do all this entirely via Mathematics and Experience - by Formulae and Pragmatism alone.

The original source of this crisis is in fact very old, and has caused increasing problems for millennia, alongside very successful technological systems, until finally the very foundations of Physical Theory were shown to be compromised fundamentally, with absolutely NO evident theoretical solution available.

So, explanatory Theory was shelved, and the obviously useable technological methods, involving advanced Mathematics and Pragmatism, were installed instead as the new "Theory" and "Practice". But, the old productive dynamic tensions between Explanatory Theory and Formal Description were lost forever - Thereafter Mathematics ruled OK!

The core of the problem was never realised, as a pragmatic solution had long ago been devised, which, most of the time anyway, allowed some real progress to continue, propped up by an effective, enabling trick! The foundational mistake was the Principle of Plurality. And, the pragmatic frig was "If it works, it is right!" The former patched-up the basic Theory, while the latter overcame any contradictory rational impasses.

And, most important of all, the technologists, doing what they always do best, soon learned how to drastically adjust-and-maintain both investigative and productive situations to get very close to conforming to the Principle of Plurality.

But this impasse must be transcended! 

So, SHAPE Blog, realising the inadequacies of this short Introduction, will regularly publish short informative papers, developing these ideas, and will subsequently publish a series of dedicated Issues of SHAPE Journal to finish the job.

This is important!

And it will only be available from this source...

20 February, 2018

The Quantum


Is it intrinsic or caused?

The whole basis of the Quantum Revolution in modern Sub Atomic Physics is that the Quantum of electromagnetic energy is intrinsic to the Nature of Reality, so that all theories have to be modified to build this requirement into them.

But, could it be that there is a purely physical explanation for energy being cast into, and thereafter maintained as such descrete forms?

This might seem almost sacrilegious to literally all modern physicists, but a purely theoretical investigation into the effect of a totally undetectable, but both affected-and-affecting Universal Substrate, has questioned that assumption, by finding physical ways that such energy might have a Quantum Nature imposed upon it - especially as the very same nature would, thereafter, in its normal means of propagation, be rigidly maintained.

There was, of course, another good reason for embarking upon such an investigation, which was clearly that this theorist was unhappy with the anomalous results of the New Theory, especially in the whole series of Double Slit Experiments, which had become cornerstones of the Quantum Revolution, and had, in addition, also led to the dumping of Physical Explanations entirely, for a wholly formal mathematical description as being "more reliable", and still allowing prediction and reproducible phenomena.

As far as this physicist was concerned, however, the real heart of Physics was in its explanatory power, rather than its reliable formal predictability, so he embarked upon this exercise to also investigate all possible avenues for such an alternative to be available. And the Double Slit Experiments with their supposed "Wave/Particle Duality" cried out for a substrate-based solution.

But, there was no discernable Substrate! 

Clearly, if one existed, it would have to be totally undetectable, while also effectively functioning as a propagator of Electromagnetic Radiation. Whatever it was composed-of would have to be self-hiding while entirely capable of carrying quanta of electromagnetic energy.

It could only be a joint-particle, of the same basic model as the atom but composed of sub-units - opposite in every possible way, but capable of carrying energy also hidden within it. The obvious theoretical candidate had to be a mutually-orbiting pair consisting of:-

An Electron of ordinary matter and a negative charge


A Positron of antimatter and a positive charge.

These, being of the same size, they would share the same orbit, but always occupying the exact opposite positions within it.

Such a joint particle would be invisible, but could carry a quantum of energy by the promotion of its internal orbit!

But, why should that carried energy be only as a Quantum?

The answer to that question is also answered by this new particle, but only revealed in its crucial role as part of a Universal Substrate. So, before we go any further we should establish just how this joint, neutral particle could possibly form an effectible and affecting Substrate.

It doesn't seem possible for such a neutral particle to be capable of forming any kind of "connected-Substrate", but investigation of these particles, in very-close proximity to one snother, has shown, theoretically-at-least, that they can.

For, when very close together, the sub-particles of one such unit will transiently be able to affect those of another. Indeed, as the sub-particles orbit they will cause an oscillating attraction and repulsion affect upon the two involved overall Units. And, the consequence would be that units - getting close enough, would be captured into a loosely-connected form, termed a Paving! And, all participating units would oscillate about mean positions at fixed separations of all the units involved. This would make a bucket-brigade propagation of quanta possible at a fixed speed - the Speed of Light - "C".

Now, for those impatiently awaiting the Creation of the Quanta, we are finally approaching the point where an explanation can ultimately be delivered.

It concerns the various possible modes of the Paving! For, though the form described above will be the default mode of the Substrate Units in quiescent regions, it can very easily be dissociated into its components Units, which in the consequent free-moving form are usually termed Photons.

And, the same material interlopers that precipitated such a dissociation will also tend to drive them into Streams and even Vortices. And though those these modes will be usually temporary, there is one set of circumstances in which that will not be the case.

It is that inside all atoms! For there, the dissociating cause is an orbiting electron, which will constantly return, and re-affect the photons and the caused Vortices in every single orbit. The energy will come from the orbiting electron and into the photons and Vortices, but the orbit will decline somewhat, so that upon a certain orbit, the energy will be FROM the photons and Vortices and BACK into the orbiting electron.

And there will be only a small number of optimum orbits, which display a persisting balance, so become Stable: these are the Quantised Orbits for that atom! 

And hence, all transfers of energy changing these orbits will always be between that atom's stable orbits!

It is only in atoms where the specific quanta of energy are determined!

Issue 57: Natural Philosophy?

“What is Reality? Who is interpreting it? And how are they managing that?”

This series of papers by philosopher Jim Schofield takes a fresh epistemological look at modern science and offers a strong critique of contemporary theory and practice, from a staunchly materialist standing.

It does so both through a dialectical examination of the discipline’s assumed premises and their historical origins in early philosophy, and through close criticism of a series of lectures by prominent theoretical physicist Nima Arkani-Hamed.

19 February, 2018

The Photon

The Photon

Pure Energy Quantum or Undetectable Container?
Purely Formal Description or Material Explanation?

Clearly, such paradoxes, as appear in the subtitles of this paper, reflect the now universally-accepted, paradoxical properties of this crucial entity. For, current theories, based upon the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory insist upon such paradoxes as being absolutely-essential to the real nature of this entity, and of Sub Atomic Physics in general.

Perhaps the most incongruous of these ideas are the related phenomena of Pair Production and Pair Annihilation! For, in Pair Production, a high-energy Photon suddenly converts from being a Quantum of Pure Energy into TWO material particles - an ordinary matter Electron with a negative charge, and an antimatter Positron with a positive charge.

Clearly, an example of matter being created out of Pure Energy - initially in some non-material, yet finite and localised form, which, then, all by itself, converts into two material particles of "incompatible" matter-types, moving off in exactly opposite directions...


So, perhaps the opposite process of Pair Annihilation will help our understanding?

For, in Pair Annihilation, the encounter of an Electron and a Positron, immediately causes the destruction of these two well-defined material entities, in which their physically-based properties, are converted into a Quantum - as a finite, localised concentration of Pure Energy - somehow retaining something of its previous incarnation, but converted into "the possibility" of Electromagnetic Energy, which is traditionally described in terms of two interwoven, varying vectors - one electric and the other magnetic.


Now, if the reader finds all this somewhat confusing - join the club! For, it was precisely such inexplicable paradoxes which led to the abandonment of the prior Explanatory Physics, to be totally replaced by a purely Descriptive, Mathematical alternative.

For, the new non-explanatory form could still be effectively used! It could predict, in a new way, with remarkable accuracy - and with the still major persistence of Pragmatism, as a long-relied-upon means of getting-around contradictions, physicists found that the prior requirement of also coherently-and-physically explaining phenomena, could be jettisoned for a pure mathematical consistency instead, which, henceforth, replaced Explanation as a sufficient "Theory"!

But, two immediate questions present themselves:-

1. Is such a change philosophically sound?
2. Is there a different physical explanation?

Now, there is an immediate answer to Question 1, which also explains a great deal more than we are considering here. To carry it through with sufficient philosophical rigor would be a significant undertaking. So, the briefest answer will have to suffice here (though a full treatment is available from this theorist elsewhere).

Ever since the breakthroughs of the Ancient Greeks, Mankind has had to manage with an incompatible amalgam of basically contradictory philosophic stances. Indeed, the prior major intellectual stance of Pragmatism was retained, but overlain, first, with Idealism and Plurality (from their invention of Mathematics), and then with Materialism from early observational Science. There was no avoiding inevitable contradictions, and a powerful blinkering to restrict study to exclusively actual or man-made Stabilities, and ignoring qualitative change as being solely due to mere quantitative accumulation. Finally, their development of Formal Logic was also damaged by the very same premise-extractions from Mathematics.

Such a basis was always, and still is, inadequate to the tasks presented to scientists by Development, Evolution and the emerging Nature of Reality at the Sub Atomic Level. The unavoidable contradictions proved just too much, and without a real philosophical solution, they just dropped the "culprit" of Physical Explanation completely.

Now, as to question 2!

There is, in fact, an alternative Physical Explanation, which certainly explains both Pair Production and Pair Annihilation, which I will touch on here. And, when extended beyond these phenomena and involving different components, seems to offer a full refutation to Copenhagen in general.

It involves the combination of an Electron and a Positron into a stable joint particle! 

This is usually discounted due to the universally accepted tenet that matter and antimatter mutually annihilate one another on contact to deliver Pure Energy: but what if they mutually orbit one another instead?

We know it can happen because of the Positronium - a mutually-orbiting pair of precisely these two entities, as was observed in the Tevatron at Fermilab, but in that accelerator, what was produced never survived for long!

The alternative is a sufficiently stable version of that joint particle, which I have re-named the Neutritron.

So what do we get?

It appears to be a very small, wholly neutral particle with no magnetic dipole moment. It will therefore be undetectable in almost all circumstances, but, nevertheless, it is capable of having its internal orbit promoted by absorbing energy. And, if it is then moving freely it appears to us as a physical Photon!

Also, if too much energy is absorbed, it is clear that such an entity will dissociate into its component units - giving us Pair Production too.

Remarkably, this theorist has also established that in spite of its neutrality it can form a weakly-associated Substrate, termed a Paving, for, in very close proximity to one another, two Neutritrons can experience an oscillating attraction and repulsion, due to the effects of the orbiting sub-particles in one affecting those in the other. Indeed, as this only occurs within a small, fixed distance apart, the Paving seems an ideal medium for the propagation of quanta of Electromagnetic Energy, travelling from unit-to-unit in a bucket-brigade fashion, giving us the fixed Speed-of-Light!

Further, investigations have enabled this Theory to explain ALL of the anomalies of the Double Slit Experiments too.


Dissociations of the Paving into free-Moving Neutritrons (Photons) has also allowed driven streams of these units and even Vortices, which when associated with orbiting electrons in atoms, can physically explain Quantised Orbits - without the need for Planck's Constant and the rest of the Copenhagen "theories".

[With thanks to Yves Couder for his earlier Walker Experiments, with his revealing of similarly-caused Quantised orbits at the Macro Level in a "Substrate-only" Experiment]

Yves Couder's experiment shows the potential for a physical substrate to explain quantum phenomena

As a postscript, I cannot omit the extension of this Theory to include both Magneton and Graviton units of such a Universal Substrate, which are fast removing all the anomalies of Fields - which become re-arrangements of the Substrate.