15 May, 2018

The Fractal Myth

The Fractal Myth of Scale Invariance

and the conclusions it reveals for Natural Law

Look carefully at the following animation and extract what you think it demonstrates.

It is in fact a movie based upon a Fractal Form resolutely chased, level-below-level, as far as you might want, which, in this delivered world, can be repeated literally forever. Can we draw any conclusions from this demonstration? Does it make us think differently about our World?

Yet, it is certainly NOT about our real World!

It is, instead, an exploration of another physically-non-existing and, indeed, a wholly non-exist-able World, which we can artificially construct, and even display dynamically, entirely from formal elements selectively extracted from our World, but, absolutely-crucially, under a set of majorly affecting constraints, and extensively carried through a range of formal changes (totally unobtainable in our world, but achievable here) to deliver this video.

It is possible in that World, allowed by such a construction - the World that we term Ideality- the World of Pure Forms alone, which is, of course, the realm of all of Mathematics!

Now, the viewer may well be wondering why I am delivering this piece: what on earth is my purpose? Surely no-one would consider that the above clip, in any way reflects Reality-as-is: it is clearly an entertaining infinite construct - a journey into a constructed world!

But, it is, nevertheless, based upon a formal equation.

And, in our world we depend, all the time, upon such formal equations as the valid embodiments of eternal Natural Laws, extracted from our world in highly constrained and controlled situations.

There can be no doubt that these too exist-as-such only in that World of Ideality. And, Reality and Ideality are very different Worlds! Though Ideality contains Forms, and Forms alone, Reality also contains Everything Else, including all the physically existing Causes for how things behave within it. So, can formal equations from Ideality alone be sufficient to predict real world developments?

The answer surely has to be a resounding ,"NO!" Yet technologists, using such equations, can make it happen!

Do they just go into the real world, get the required stuff, and apply their equations to it? Of course not - for it would always fail!

Embedded in any production process is a great deal more than a formal equation - everything else, in a series of separate processes all with the correct substances, conditions, processes and their requisite equations, must be involved in each tightly controlled stage, to finally produce something like the proginal intension.

YET, what do theorists use to extend their theories? They stand at their blackboards, or scribble on paper, using Formal Equations alone!

Benoit Mandelbrot at the blackboard

To explain it to you, they just give you their equations - as the Laws-determining-what-will-happen! They manipulate their Laws to predict new possible outcomes, which they could never achieve without the technicians discovering all the concrete requirements absolutely essential to RESTRICT the real world outcome to that "required theoretical objective".

But, and here is the crucial difficulty, in Sub Atomic Physics and Cosmology, the theorists have abandoned physical explanations as self-kid, and now rely solely upon their Formal Equations alone.

So, what has this done to their "Science"?

Now, these words are not those of some uninformed outsider, indulging in his profound ignorance of what the fully qualified experts can do. On the contrary. I am, primarily, a qualified physicist and mathematician. I can do all this stuff, and have been doing so for many decades.

But, my many involvements extend greatly wider than these currently severely-restricted areas, and, crucially, include significant work, in many other disciplines, where I contributed expert understanding and skills in Computer Science and Systems Analysis - finally ending up as an expert in Computers-in-Control.

To pull all this together I have spent the last decade studying and contributing to Philosophy, so rather than an uninformed outsider, I am a very well-informed insider. And, have also been involved in a trenchant, philosophical evaluation, and, indeed, criticism of my professionally qualified areas of Physics and Mathematics. And, to cap all of this I spent a very profitable time assisting the excellent mathematician Jagan Gomatam with his investigations of iterative forms of specially adapted versions of Van der Pol's Equations applied to the beating of the Human Heart, and involving the Mathematical Chaos - closely related to the Fractals at the beginning of this essay.

Van der Pol style oscillator

So, my purpose is to accurately-position scientific investigations, AND their claimed-to-be eternal Natural Laws, in their true relation to actual Reality-as-is, and how we get them to both deliver our objectives, and allow us to interpret what they deliver.

Surprisingly, we neither investigate Reality-as-is, 
nor use our extracted Laws in Reality-as-is!

For, our objective is to somehow extract, from a Complex and Real World, individual, separated-out and entirely formal (i.e. quantitative) relations, and then apply them to some desired end.

And, neither of these are possible in Reality-as-is!

The relation only actually exists, as such, in Ideality- the World of Pure Form alone! So, it is clear that a location in Reality will have to be significantly transformed to become as close as possible to Ideality.

And, this is achieved by:-

  • the isolation of that location, 

  • and the removal of as many factors as possible,

  • along with the holding of certain others constant,

  • while leaving only the relevant variable savailable,

  • for the variation of one, and the measurement of the other.

This approximates that purposely-farmed-locationto what normally only occurs in Ideality, which we term - a forced conformity to the Principle of Plurality.

And, in such a situation, the relation, between the two remaining variables, is usually immediately evident, and can have a purely formal ideal relation, acquired from Mathematics, fitted-up to the obtained data set, to deliver a formal equation, designated as an eternal Natural Law!

But, there is a problem. It will never work in Reality-as-is! It can be made to work, but only if the exact conditions of its extraction are replicated for its use.

So, Fractals, and all that jazz, do not, as such, extend our reach in Reality, but only in Ideality: what they do is extend what we have in Mathematics, and are therefore merely extensions to that discipline alone. They have nothing to tell us about reality.

Issue 59: Meta Forces

The problems addressed by this theorist are many and varied, all arising primarily out of the inadequacies and contradictions which have arisen as consequences of the now dominant Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory. But, in addition, the problems are also due to much longer-standing compromises and alternative stances, that have plagued Science, and existed for millennia.

So, let us start with the problem of communications throughout vast regions of totally “Empty Space”, and fields of truly colossal size existing within there too.

Now, the reasons why such anomaly have been accepted as O.K. in spite of the inability to detect any sort of means for supporting such features, is simply because the Formal Equations describing such phenomena seem to work very well.

First, the fact that we cannot explain why things occur as they do is ignored, because we have those useful equations. And, second, it is because Modern Science has finally switched to the totally idealist position that assumes formal relations actually drive concrete Reality.

Such an idealist/pragmatist stance is anathema to this physicist, and led to an attack upon that position, via a purely physical attempt to explain the whole range of phenomena abandoned by this approach.

Effectively, it was soon clear that the task had to be a wholesale assault upon the Copenhagen stance, at the very heart of which, were the conclusions drawn from that cornerstone of the Theory - the Double Slit Experiments!

Now, as it turned out, every single one the anomalies of that set of Experiments, could all be totally removed, solely by the presence of a currently undetectable Universal Substrate, acting as an intermediary, and providing the Waves, while the missiles aimed at the Slits, actually provided the Particles.

The only conclusion one could draw from that success, was that such a Substrate must indeed exist, and, this theorist began the task of defining appropriate Substrate Units to deliver all the involved phenomena.

The research was primarily determined by the essential undetectability of such a Substrate, and inexorably led to the idea of the units being entirely composed of mutually-orbiting-pairs of Leptons - especially chosen to deliver all the phenomena when active, but to be totally undetectable when inactive (see above).

Slowly-but-surely, such effective units began to be devised, but turned out to have to be very different ones, for each type of phenomena:

The Double Slit, EM propagation and Wave/Particle duality were solved using: Neutritrons

Electrical & Magnetic Fields in empty space with: Magnetons

But the substrate for Gravitation Fields was with Gravitons; and this proved to be the most difficult of all!

The overall ambition was to explain everything via this multi-layered and undetectable Substrate, and it was finally achieved by assuming a Meta-Gravity Dipole Effect in Gravitons, similar to the Magnetic Dipole Effect in Magnetons. But what could this new meta force mean for physics - and how could we possibly detect it?

What Happens in Interstellar Space?

Certain questions just have to be asked, in response to the current total absence of any physical means of communication in so-called Empty Space.

Of course, Einstein's Space-Time continuum provided a non-physical, yet somehow effectible, Reference-System, as a means of formally fitting patterns to what occurs there, but only by taking that basis completely out of physical explanation and endowing the "stage" itself with the necessary formal wherewithal, entirely independent of any physical causes.

So, for gravitational forces elicited directly by Matter, we have the contradictory explanation of a non-material context both being affected-by, while itself affecting, what happens within its aegis.

We, in the past, used to term such inferred intermediaries to be physical Substrates, but as none were ever detected, the substitution of that non-material-framework, justified the purely formal definitions that were already-and-everywhere else erected as parallel alternatives, to the previously always-required physical Explanations.

It fitted-in, directly, if not perfectly, with the positivist stance of Poincaré and Mach, and what soon after became the dominant position of the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory.

Purely formal pattern-fitting was rapidly ousting all Physical Theories, as the true bases of Science, and of the Concrete Reality, which it previously purported to explain in purely physical terms. Truly, a purely idealist-and-pluralist mathematical form of "Theory", along with various, frigged-up "philosophical" justifications, cheek-by-jowl with isolated physical tokens, has totally replaced Science as it used to be considered.

And, the fact that there were many things wrong with the old conceptions, doesn't make this transformation anything other than a major, and ultimately debilitating Retreat! At least, the old contradictory amalgam of stances did enable alternative routes to be taken, with difficult problems, while maintaining Physical Explanations as paramount.

But now, that absolutely crucial banker-component had been jettisoned, and replaced by a totally idealist-and-pluralist discipline, not only as a means of describing Reality, but also as the means of driving it too!

And, this purely form-based approach was highly attractive for several reasons.

First and foremost was the fact that increasing knowledge allowed to-be-investigated situations to be farmed and controlled to such an extent, that formal relations could be fairly easily extracted, and then matched to fitted-up general forms from Mathematics. And these, in turn, allowed achievable predictions to be made, and then successfully implemented - as long as the conditions used in extraction were replicated exactly for use in productions.

In addition, these equations were legitimately pluralist (while the Reality-as-is that they were supposed to represent, most certainly wasn't). And, this allowed the pluralistic rules of Pure Form to be used in developing further, more extensive "formal theories". as if they were Real World generalities.

But, of course, the clearest gains were achieved by the Technologists, whose main motto was still, "If it works, It is right!". and whose extensive Knowledge and pragmatic skills enabled them to always construct the appropriate contexts for effective use!

And, finally, "Space", itself, never ever available under such farmed and controlled conditions, was not only seemingly much closer to the ideal pluralist conditions, but also was beyond our experimental investigation: it could only be passively observed, so the earth-based means of confirmations were unavailable.

The situation was tailor-made for formal equation-fitting PLUS speculation!

Now, an early assumption, attempting to explain phenomena that evidently occurred in "Space", was that it was filled with some invisible Substrate, usually termed The Ether (or luminiferous aether), which both allowed the Propagation of Electromagnetic Radiation, and communicated evident Actions-at-a-Distance, such as Gravitation.

But when it was discounted by the Michelson-Morley Experiment, it was replaced by absolutely Nothing - the ubiquitous Natural Vacuum of Space.

The phenomena still occurred, and have mathematical formulae. which they obey, but as to why they were possible - that was left unaddressed.

Now, it very soon became an untenable stance, so while maintaining the total absence of anything resembling a substrate, there was one kind of interloper that it was considered could be relied upon to deliver everything! It was energetic particles fired into the emptiness of Space, and capable of carrying on as such until they hit something.

Even Electromagnetic Radiation was conceived as coming in quanta - individual gobbets of energy, so they too would also fit the bill: no longer would a propagating substrate be deemed necessary.

But, how do you expand Nothingness?

With the deemed-to-be-essential, faster than the Speed of Light, Inflation, early in the Universe, what exactly was expanded, and how? Forgive me, but this isn't Physics: it is crystal-clear, as a purely mathematical process applied to a Form! It is a purely formal, non-physical solution to problems, which the Universe, as we conceive it, sets for us.

And, how about the Red Shift in light from distant objects?

We infer a Doppler Shift as occurs in sound on Earth, but that effect assumes a physical spatial-or-time dilation or contraction, so how would that occur in Light Quanta? What indeed is the physical form of a Quantum?

How can you stretch a wave without a medium!?

It is conceivable when an electron orbit in an atom is promoted to a higher level by a descrete amount of energy, embodied in an electron going around the atom at a particular radius and speed: that embodies the future quantum = produced when the orbit is demoted again releasing a precise quantum of Energy.

But as what?

I can conceive of a transfer to another receptacle, similar in form to an atom, with and internal orbit. But neither of these seem susceptible to Doppler Shift modifications! And data recorded from observations by the astronomer Halton Arp seem to directly confound the usual interpretation.

And, yet another problem is in the transit of Birkeland Plasma Currents between, say, the Sun and the Earth actually find their targets through supposedly entirely Empty Space? For these have two strands, in close intrinsic proximity to each other going in opposite directions to one another.

How do these actually occur?

Now space rockets and powerful space located Telescopes have revealed Boundaries of the Solar System in supposedly Empty Space causing the Kuiper Belt and the Ort Cloud to take very different forms. And, the Voyager Spacecraft has actually measured these boundaries - begging the question - boundaries in what?

What is the Interstellar "Medium"?
It sounds suspiciously like a Substrate!

This is not by any means a fully worked up answer to the problems posed above: but this theorist has elsewhere developed a definition of an undetectable Universal Substrate - existing in so-called Empty Space which not only addresses the above problems but also all those appearing in the famed Double Slit Experiments credited with delivering the Foundation for the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory - the current consensus in Modern Sub Atomic Physics!

The latest developments in this new Substrate Theory of Physics can be found in the latest issue of Shape, which looks at the possibility of a medium of Neutrino-based Gravitons, pervading all space.

Issue 59 of the SHAPE Journal

Meta Forces

24 April, 2018

Special Issue: The New Science

The New Science

Having finally buried The Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory, both philosophically and physically, the time has come for establishing the Revolutionary Alternative, namely Holist Science.

It is not entirely new, but does need to be firmly established among the wreckage of the Copenhagen defeat, to re-orientate the Scientific Experimental Method on Holist rather than Pluralist grounds, to re-construct the most basic of the sciences, Sub Atomic Physics, beyond the limits imposed upon it by Copenhagen, and to begin the reunion of all-the-sciences upon a common, coherent, consistent and comprehensive ground - always promised but never delivered, throughout the millennia of Pluralist Science, and its ever-increasing dominance of Form over Content.

There have been isolated interludes in the past within other, assumed-to-be-secondary sciences, such as Biology, Geology, and even Astrophysics, but the concreted-in Pluralist Foundations of the majority of sciences and specialisms, have always turned attention away from Explanation to Effective Production - from True Science to Technology - with an all-embracing emphasis upon usable Mathematics and Equations, rather than the building of Real and General Understanding.

23 April, 2018

Reality & Truth

Art by Anselm Kiefer

The Lost Paths 


Philosophy & Science

On reading various current papers about the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory both in Sub Atomic Physics and in present-day Philosophy it is becoming absolutely clear that literally nobody actually knows what Science is really about, and also they do not understand the basis of Mathematics - they have no evident programme for the pursuit of Truth!

So, with such an empty toolbox it should not surprise anyone what a mess the current intellectual climate is in. Of course, all the participants in this chaos, do regularly find their ways home, put all the right keys in all the right holes, and manage to eat with efficiency. But as to the problems listed above they seem totally bereft of the means to address them.

For a collection of telling reasons, they find NO way to concretely address their difficulties, and it is evident that it is precisely what they have been told to ignore or reject in their Education that so completely disarms their Thinking from finding the necessary solutions.

So, I must start at the bottom, and attempt to give them some appropriate ground and here are a few premises and early steps:-

  • Absolute Truth is always unobtainable!

  • Homo sapiens were never evolved to be able to reveal it!

  • Man was evolved to survive and to reproduce, and, certainly very differently to how he does it now!

  • Man is, as you know, a Great Ape!

  • But, being a social animal, is hence more intelligent than any loner species. His intelligence is social

  • And, he did evolve into becoming a bipedal, ground-dweller!

  • And, this released his branch-grasping hands to do more interesting things than mere locomotion through the trees.

  • Man's initial, crude vocalisations gradually became Speech.

  • And, his adaptable hands soon did many wholly new things.

  • He began to find and use flints with a sharp edge.

  • And, gradually learned how to knap those flints into effective tools.

  • Most of what he began to communicate via his speech was obviously to do with the above primary functions and activities.

Only with the comparatively recent Neolithic Revolution did Man's life change radically - for he stayed in one place along with others, communicated and co-operated much more, and began to develop new means of life, such as farming the land and domesticating animals.

Now, I hope you will forgive this snail-slow initial progress, but it was to make clear just how very late Mankind's use of Language was in an at all sophisticated way. So much so, indeed, that many of his necessarily-invented words are not always helpful, and, indeed, were often as much a hindrance as a help. In other words, Man had to learn how to initially abstract from Reality, and thereafter refine, or even correct, that language as best he could: and has necessarily been doing so ever since.

Yet, the emergence of intellectual disciplines occurred very late in that long process (circa 500 BC and ever since), and when such did happen, it both simultaneously and vastly extended his verbal reach, while often and unavoidably also setting-into-stone extremely important conceptual mistakes, some of which have persisted to the present day.

Meanwhile, the earliest, pre-Greek tenet of all, embodied in "If it works, it is right!" - basic Pragmatism, is even today daily claimed as being more important than literally all the other generalist conclusions, whatever the debate.

Now, that important intellectual revolution, achieved by the ancient Greeks, was established, perhaps surprisingly, upon an unusual basis - Geometry - the Study of Shapes, in which the unavoidable simplification of things, was in addition, extended to the perfecting or idealisation of those shapes into "Study-able Forms" - because once in such Forms, they were found to be both analysable and easily juxtaposed to deliver a vastly extended range, about which all sorts of rules could be derived and confirmed by Proof-via-suggested-Theorems!

Let us be clear, this wasn't about naturally-occurring Shapes, but about idealised versions of them, though Mankind soon learned that if one kept to such Forms in his construction and organisation of real world things, he could much more easily plan and calculate things to his advantage. But, and this is very important, the range of things, that could be carried out in this New Discipline, were NOT the same as those applicable in the real world! The new Mathematics, as it ultimately became known, was a discipline of Ideality- the World of Pure Forms alone. and NOT of the real concrete world - Reality!

And, the reason for this was that everything in this New World was permanently FIXED - they didn't qualitatively change or develop at all - And, this greatly simplified what could be done with them!

Much later, this was embodied into the Principle of Plurality, in which all things were assumed to be eternal qualitatively.

Interestingly, at almost the same time in India, The Buddha, a major spiritual leader, was saying the exact opposite - All Things Change, and Everything Affects Everything Else, which was later embodied in the opposite Principle of Holism.

Nevertheless, the power endowed by idealisation in Mathematics was so useful that the same sort of discipline was then established in Reasoning, where it was called Formal Logic, and somewhat later it was also similarly applied to Descriptive Science. 

Absolutely all of them conformed to the Principle of Plurality - which isn't actually True in anything other than Mathematics!

Perhaps surprisingly, apart from a brief criticism by Zeno of Elea, soon after the Greek Revolution, no general criticism of Formal Logic was mounted for about 2,500 years, so we can only draw the conclusion that even mistaken principles and consequent intellectual methods were very unlikely to be changed, and particularly when the bottom-line of "If it works, it is right!"continued to validate new conceptions, discoveries and inventions.

Nevertheless Hegel, revisiting Zeno criticisms, finally realised several important mistakes!

First, he realised that Dichotomous Pairs of contradictory concepts, which according to the long-agreed Rules of Formal Reasoning, were both equally applicable at certain points in a line of argument - yet, in fact, only one of the choice ever actually worked, and which one it was could only be discovered by trying them both out! Formal Logic, as such, was, indeed, failing, and Hegel had to find out why.

He not only re-assessed Zeno's cases involving Movement and the concepts of Continuity and Descreteness, but, in addition, sought out as many such Dichotomous Pairs as he could find, and then always looked for what should have distinguished between them in the premises-assumed.

He found that in every case the premises used were always insufficient, and if a new kind of premise was included the usual impasse in Logic could be transcended!

The new premises turned out to always be concerning Qualitative Changes, which were prohibited by the Principle of Plurality. Hegel decided that he had to install Qualitative Changes in a wholly new Science of Logic, but, to do such was much easier said than done, because when things didn't change, then the Old Logic was still sufficient, so careful investigations would have to be undertaken to assess all situations.

Hegel attempted to generalise all situations into a New Form, composed, at the extremes, with each of the concepts from a Dichotomous Pair, with varying premises actually positioning the situation, at one extreme or the other for "those prior singly-defined solution cases", or somewhere in between, where a sufficient change in circumstances could precipitate a flip from one extreme to the other.

He called his scheme Dialectics, but as it was clear that in certain conditions a single option could be ensured by Pragmatism, they did that instead!

NOTE: A similar trick is used throughout Science, for, if the experimental circumstances were suitably restricted, and then rigorously controlled, they too could count upon particular outcomes, so they only used such "extracted Laws" in the identical circumstances, as those under which the Law had been extracted.

Indeed, this theorist labels the usual incarnations as Pluralist Logic and Pluralist Science, and is currently in the process of erecting a Holist Alternative to the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory.

Now, there is a great deal more to this story than has been addressed here, for the pluralist approach in Physics has other major flaws, the most important being the total trust in pluralist formal equations as against the holistic alternative of Causal Explanations: for apart from the control of circumstances necessary to get a relation both clearly displayed and extracted too, it was also the usual next step of fitting up a purely formal mathematical form to the extracted data by substituting sets of measured data into a given General Form, and thereby getting a set of simultaneous equations, in the so far Unknown Constants of that General Form.

Then, solving the simultaneous equations would give the values of those constants, which would then be inserted into the general form, to give the Equation of the Law - But, it, most certainly, isn't that at all! It is both a pluralist aberration AND also an idealistic version of the Law.

So, it will, therefore, have built-in inextricably-into-it the limited range of the ideal version, so that it blows up, in the real world, when that range is exceeded, along with whatever local features were also included due to its artificially-arranged-for pluralist context.

So, what do they cause to happen when fitted up with a causal Explanation based-solely upon such flawed formal results?

Those explanations will certainly fail!

BUT, is it the fault of making a Causal Explanation? NO! It is caused by the mangled formal representation used to determined that explanation.


So, where is Truth in all this mess!

The Absolute Truth often demanded cannot exist in the above pluralist and idealist manipulations. Indeed, what is actually achieved frequently minimises any Explanatory Truth to be found there, and replaces it with Pure Form alone!

And, the methods used don't ever deliver any Aspects or Parts of the Truth, which can, indeed, be the case with a directly attempted causal explanations. Yet these can, and indeed do, exist with direct attempts to explain, in the old ,now discarded ways of Causal Explanation.

What real scientists seek is more Objective Content in their explanations, than were previously available. So, it is an infinitely better, if erratic, route towards Truth, because, as distinct from mere formal descriptive methods, it alone asks the vital question, "Why?" And, only a constantly-repeated insistence upon that question, can overcome prior inadequacies and refine our conceptions.

The alternative route, which can only answer the question, "Why?" with the answer, "Obeys this equation!", not only explains absolutely nothing concretely, but is clearly also totally idealist.

21 April, 2018

Mondragon: Cooperatives without Socialism?

After listening to a very interesting account of the splendid Mondragon System of Worker Cooperatives in Northern Spain, by an actual participant in that system of Worker Coop Enterprises, I was not only able to see the clear advantages over the alternative of privately owned Capitalist enterprises, but also got a clear idea of its limitations. For, in spite of its remarkable successes, such enterprises cannot change the World!

They have to survive, in the interstices, within a worldwide dominant system that is not only economic but actively political-and-belligerently-coercive, and has a frequently-used solution to challenging problems, via not only local, but indeed World Wars of devastating proportions. Indeed, that now-dominant, alternative economic approach too was once itself a challenger to a prior system, and only brought about the transfer, via a series of bloody Revolutions, resulting in the establishment of a very different political system - conducive to its preferred capitalist economics.

It wasn't merely a matter of choice! Every status quo is the result of the victory of one dominating Class over the rest: and to achieve Power politically they have always to have the resources and the alliances with other, also repressed Classes, to have any chance of bringing off the solution they require.

You can no longer find local solutions economically! For, production and consumption are now not only unavoidably social, but already global too, acting upon a truly world scale. And, how that is organised and controlled are unavoidable questions.

Indeed, several important revolutions have occurred to kick out the capitalist owners, and replace them with a Socialist State. After the Second World War, the whole World was dominated politically, by what has been termed the Cold War between the emerging Socialist States and the still dominant Capitalist States. And a series of hot, local wars have been undertaken by the Capitalist Powers to prevent further Socialist Revolutions. Clearly, despite the achievements of the Cooperatives, the building of such enterprises alone cannot change the World in this regard.

Abandoned: Royal Arsenal Co-operative Society Department Store

In the United Kingdom the Cooperative Wholesale Society (CWS) after being a dominant service to the Working Class has been defeated and dismantled by its capitalist competitors via undercutting prices by super exploitation in Third World countries.

It isn't a "level playing field" at all!

So, I'm afraid all the purely non-political routes are certain to fail. For, once the "powers-that-be" decide that they present a real challenge to their dominance and wealth, they will be dealt with.

So, the nettle must be grasped!

But what kind of Socialism is actually required? Is it like Russia used to be, or China is now, or even North Korea?

NO! For it hasn't worked! Three vital questions just have to be seriously addressed:-

ONE: What kinds of political parties must be built to fight for the Change?

TWO: What must be their objectives to achieve the necessary transformation?

THREE: What kind of State will be the desired result?

Mankind has been trying to address these questions for 200 years, and none of their means, from Democratic Socialist Parties, to even those fighting for violent Revolution have been effective.

Social Democratic Parties have achieved only very temporary gains, while Revolution, necessarily requiring nationwide organisations, and even armies, have inevitably produced powerful, self-maintaining and self-empowering Bureaucracies, while the lot of the mass of people has remained one of powerlessness!

Clearly, these Cooperatives are addressing powerlessness in the workplace, but not yet the other vital political questions.

The informing historical equivalent has to be the Failure of the Trades Union Movements, for in spite of growing to prodigious proportions (even in the USA) they did not address the vital political questions either, and they are now powerless to even do their admitted task of defending jobs or even working conditions.

The political tasks are vital! But do we agree what they are?

26 March, 2018


Dormitories at an abandoned Apple factory in China

There is a persisting and perplexing problem in attempting to explain the historical trajectory of Capitalism over its fairly short life!

It concerns the swift growth of human populations in the towns and cities, which infers that they must have come for a better life than they had endured previously, and also that they must have, initially at least, experienced one, in order to both stay and grow in such numbers. It therefore appears that work in the factories of the employers was indeed delivering an improvement in living conditions, at the time.

Yet, the most evident state of many of those city populations, was that they always seemed to be barely surviving, and in the direst poverty. Why on earth did leave their existences in the countryside to commit themselves to descend into the hell of such cities? And, why did they not return to their countryside jobs, when life in the city hit rock bottom for them?

The trouble was their old jobs were long gone!

The farmers were mechanising, and no longer needed the vast army of labourers of the past. And some farms found sheep far more profitable than arable farming - again requiring less labour. And, in the Highlands the villages were being cleared to deliver ever more "pastures and playgrounds-for-the-rich". There were no jobs, and also no homes there any more.

It is, therefore, less of a contradiction, when the major driving forces are exposed. But, nevertheless, for along time there seemed to be a shining light which still appeared to deliver the promise of a better life.

In what later became the USA, such situations were rarely as bad: indeed, such workers, who generally were immigrants, escaping from desperate conditions in Europe, entertained an ever rising standard of living, pretty well constantly for over 150 years! What was going on?

Workers in the USA were afforded a better quality of life

The new economic system did both promise a better life, but simultaneously put every single worker onto the unavoidable task of enriching their employers. And, these are contradictory objectives!

Whilever things were going well for the employer, the life of the worker also was better. But any setbacks for the employer always changed things dramatically for the workers. The employer would sack workers, and maybe employ others at lower wages, gradually forcing down the quality of life of all those employed. And, if the company failed and couldn't sell what it made, it would be shut down, throwing all the workers out without any means of subsistence.

Indeed, such failures were common, so there was ever the threat of unemployment to aid employers in keeping wages as low as possible. 

Workers at Apple factory which has now been shut down

In addition, this system of Capitalism was inherently unstable, and every few years had Depressions when many were thrown out of work, and Booms when things picked up again - but never in exactly the same forms.

Many firms vanished in the slumps, and new ones were created in the booms, but these ups and downs acted most strongly against workers, so even within a steady situation there would always be unemployed workers, who by their presence as such, were enabling the effective control of those still employed. Any trouble from a worker and he or she could be replaced by one of the unemployed!

Now, though conditions vary at an amazing rate, the contradictory state of the Capitalist Economic System has remained essentially the same - it has accelerated and globalised if anything.

Though workers organised into Trade Unions and even developed their own political parties, these contradictions were never removed, and every change benefiting the ruling Capitalists would be energetically pursued until it too ran out of steam.

Occasionally, there would be a Revolution which dispossessed the Capitalist class, but as the dominant Capitalist system became truly global, it could both effectively and severely limit those "socialist" countries from any real success, and by war, boycotts and eventual assimilation, even those attempts were reversed.

Clearly, unless and until the working classes, on a World scale implement many successful revolutions, they will remain both dispossessed and disposable to their capitalist enemies, ever more powerfully in charge!

Empty dormitories at former Apple factory

25 March, 2018

Issue 58: The Solar Wind II

Strange Space Weather Photograph

This strange new auroral phenomenon is called 'Steve'

Steve is still a mystery

There's been quite a bit of odd space weather lately. 'Steve' above has been spotted in the skies before, but only in the last couple of months has this bizarre aurora really started to cause a stir.

Also, a recent crack in the Earth's magnetic field unleashed a magnificient auroral display over Norway earlier this month. There seems to be increasing evidence that the Solar Wind does periodically enter our planet's Magnetosphere, and may, somewhat paradoxically, even be responsible for it.

“We’ve discovered that our magnetic shield is drafty, like a house with a window stuck open during a storm,” says Harald Frey of the University of California, Berkeley

Since this issue was written, and while we were “going to press” as it were, some interesting evidence came to our attention which may support the notion that the Earth’s magnetic field was originally ‘seeded’, and continues to be supported by the Solar Wind.

A paper entitled Solar wind induced magnetic field around the unmagnetized Earth (2004) by G. T. Birk1, H. Lesch1 and C. Konz2, looks particularly relevant in this regard, as does this excerpt from Natural Resources Canada website, an article entitled Generation of the Earth’s magnetic field:

“Even before the Earth’s magnetic field was first formed magnetic fields were present in the form of the sun’s magnetic field. Once the process is going, the existing field acts as the seed field.”

There’s some really intriguing, and seemingly holistic science going on in this area of physics - but further research is required to work out its veracity and its significance to our own theories regarding magnetism and the Universal Substrate. Watch this space: The Solar Wind III is already in preparation.

24 March, 2018

What Sort Of Organisation Can End Capitalism? I

Unfortunately most socialist organisations are not up to the job currently...

Building the Effective Force of Real Change

Part I: Underlying Theory is Paramount 

Having been a politically-active and committed-Socialist all my adult life, and been the driver of several worthwhile, if meagre, local victories, I have naturally wondered, long and hard, why the organisations I was involved with had so little effect upon the possibility of building the forces to actually achieve Socialism.

And also, thereafter, having finally become fully aware of the real paucity of Theory in such organisations, I have, for, the last decade, dedicated myself entirely to attempting to remedy this totally debilitating lack of the essential means to succeed!

As a 19 year old student I found the only sound criticism of the current theoretical stance in my chosen discipline (Physics) in an old book by V.I. Lenin, entitled Materialism and Empirio Criticism, I could, finally, clearly see where the appropriate stance in Modern Sub Atomic Physics should be, and naturally turned next to the Father of that stance, Karl Marx, to learn more: and that I did!

My introduction to Marxism was through theory rather than politics, but I was soon committed to Marx's objectives. I became preoccupied with day-to-day political activism, within one or another of then-existing Marxist tendencies, which I successively joined. And, each time, I naturally trusted their general theoretical stances, in the policies they, and therefore I, pursued.

So, preoccupied totally with such activism, I did not pursue what had originally brought me to that position. I did no theoretical work in Physics at all! Indeed, I was actually dissuaded from doing so, by my comrades, as there was always a great deal of immediate and urgent activity to be undertaken.

But, I was wrong to be so dissuaded, as the current theoretical developments within all of those organisations was literally zero. Marxism was not being developed by the real Marxists, and by this I do NOT mean being applied to new situations, as they occurred. They were certainly doing that.

It was perhaps 'up-to-date', but certainly not up-to-the-job!

Now, Marxism has truly enormous untapped potential, particularly in the Sciences.

But, in order to conquer this enormous and important area, there was still a great deal to be addressed philosophically: and that was certainly not being done. And, in addition, even the political work of committed socialists was majorly undermined too. For, the vital, creative heart of this Dialectics has to be its Holist stance. But, the reasoning of my comrades was almost never holistic: it depended upon the Pluralist stance of both everyday and academic reasoning - it simply was not fit for purpose.

Marxism was not, and should never be allowed to become, a set of recipes uncovered by Marx to address all conceivable problems. It was still to this day, gravely inadequate in a vast area of serious intellectual disciplines, without which it was doomed to merely being various kinds of fixed analyses, and a consequent set of programmes. Marxism needed to continually address these diverse areas to keep on developing! I had been wrong to abandon applying it seriously to other fields, and at a high level of research to my professionally qualified area.

I didn't even realise this until I changed my discipline, after a move to a new post.

I became a lecturer in a college, and did mathematical research in my own time. And, this soon began to make increasing demands, that required my learning to program a mainframe computer (this was the 1970s!), as the calculations were becoming increasingly onerous. Surprisingly, I discovered that I was very good at both Systems Design and Investigational Programming. And, I fairly quickly climbed the appropriate academic ladder to become an essential colleague to researchers across the whole range of disciplines, in Higher Education, from Engineering to Biology, Optics to Mathematics, and Taxonomy to Dance!

I finally achieved a professorial-level post as Director of Information Technology in a College of London University, and, thereafter, working with a researcher in Dance Performance and Choreography, with whom I had previously managed to win an award from the British Interactive Video Awards (BIVA) organisation. But, continuing this work still futher, required significant developments in philosophy, to enable both the philosophic discoveries and the technical inventions required, in wedding filmed or videoed footage of Dance to an effective means of Access and Control, for teaching purposes. And the solution to these problems was found to involve a significant extension of my current "Marxist" philosophy required.

Finally, the dice had been cast for a long overdue return to Marxism and Physics, as the solution achieved in handling the dynamics of movement actually pointed to what was necessary in many of those areas too.

The problems encoutered in revealing the many dynamic complexities of Dance Movements in understandable and instructive ways, were relevant in Sub Atomic Physics too, and I could finally address a trenchant criticism of the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory, and begin to construct its replacement by an increasingly Holist approach, involving real qualitative changes, which the Pluralist approach of current Physics was totally incapable of supplying.

It has taken some time!

By 2011 the Anomalies of the Double Slit Experiments were beginning to be explained purely physically, and an important paper upon The Processes and Productions of Abstraction was produced, followed by the Theory of Emergences.

But, these were only the beginning!

All the research was being published in a monthly online magazine called SHAPE Journal, which was supported by this blog, and SHAPE Youtube Channel. We are now approaching the 9th Anniversary of the birth of these publications, which has involved well over 110 Issues involving around 900 papers. 

And with the last Special Issue on Death to Copenhagen, we have now completed our primary objective theoretically!

But, of course, that was a means to another end, namely the re-grounding of Marxist Theory. And, the next objective has to be the rejuvenation of that Theory in radically changing current Marxist Practice in building the effective means to end Capitalism forever!

Part II: New Marxist Theory and Practice will follow soon...

11 March, 2018

Stephanie Kelton - Economist

An Interview on LEFT OUT

The most recent LEFT OUT episode from Democracy at Work was an interview with Stephanie Kelton, an Economics Professor at Stony Brook University in the US, and it was a revelation!

Some idea of her politics is illustrated by the fact that she was on Bernie Sanders team in his effort to be the Democratic Party's candidate in the recent Presidential Election. But, she is far to the left of that pro-Capitalist Party, and penetrating in her revelations of the real factors acting in a modern Floating-Currency Capitalist Economy. Her position allies her with others, like Hudson and Keen (both of whom have also been interviewed by LEFT OUT), but her emphases, though related to theirs, have been both complementary, and different.

A cornerstone in all three accounts has been the role of Government Debt in driving the economy - for their printing of money, then inserted into available resources in the Economy, delivers a boost that is essential.

For, the basic primary processes, in such an Economy, are the buying of products and services, which are essential for the whole Capitalist monolith to roll forwards: The availability of that insertion to investment in better machinery, training and the rest, always increases productivity and so boosts sales of cheaper goods. So, all of this justifies by the expansion so caused by that initial creation of money.

The usual consensus analogy with a family's Household Budget is a fiction!

They are NOT the same!

In effect, the guaranteeing of future growth by such Government actions, as the initial essential boost, is crucial, and, if successful, then increased future Tax returns will, in time, amply justify that effort and that cost. But, in addition, to such a one-off boost, the most important regular built-in factors, ensuring such developments are due, significantly, to ALL the services that the Government necessarily provides, such as:- 


Health Services and Hospitals

Roads and Transport

Fire Services

Police Forces

Ports and Safety at Sea

Energy Production

Water provision & Sewerage

Care Homes 

...and all the rest, which mightily contribute to the future performance of the Economy - see countries that have none of these, and seemingly have no chance of being able to join the fray, except by paying destitution wages: those Services are NOT just liabilities costing money, but necessary investments in current and future economic prosperity.

In particular, the everywhere -proposed ( or just smuggled-in) vast cuts in all of the above, and, very-damagingly, the privatising of such services, all proposed as helping to solve the current problems, are all clearly just lies!

They are, in fact, delivering the best possible opportunity for driving the wages of the bulk of the population down, while also making them pay for those services transferred into private hands!

Several other amplifying points clearly defined a very different view - for example Tax cuts!

Tax cuts for the poor, means they can buy more, and as there are so many of them, it would indeed stimulate the Economy. On the other hand tax cuts for the rich will not do that: they already have ample resources, more, in fact than ever before, so they certainly wont spend it in a way that will stimulate the Economy: and the myth that they will invest it in increasing investment in wholly new ventures, or in enhancing productivity, is also wrong - they will just take over more companies, and buy back their own company's Stock currently in other people's hands - for that inflates the value of shares and hence their own wealth.

The proof that this is correct, and could very easily be blatantly obvious to ordinary workers, forced the Trump government's Tax Cut to actually include a small cut for the Working class, - knowing that, in the short term, this would be immediately reflected in increased sales, and allow them to claim it was working as claimed, when its real aim is to make the Rich richer!

Another suggestion by Kelton, herself, about the necessary provision of local multi-purpose Health Centres, to be built everywhere. reminded me of my own experience in the 1940's after the Labour's Election Victory! For, they did something similar and it was a great success.

I lived in a desperately poor slum area of Manchester, yet the new Government provided a large children's Health Centre, with Doctors, Dentists, Opticians and Nurses. There were links to all local schools and visiting testers for Eyes, Teeth and Hair to find faults and solve them.

The local "park?", Gorton Park, had no flowers, no Trees or even any Grass, but Bowling Greens were provided, accompanied by an Old Peoples' Centre, with staff and cooking facilities to provide meals, with a warm and comfortable place to meet friends, have meals, play card games, old time dancing and the rest!

And these facilities in the midst of a Victorian slum, transformed the people and the place: it had a culture and a life. Can you imagine what it would have been like without these facilities?

Kelton's suggested Health Centres were also seen as Social Facilities, for all the People, and even for health campaigns as we had had in West Gorton.

[By the way, I was born and brought up in West Gorton, but got to Grammar School, and ended up as a Professor in London University]

07 March, 2018

New Special Issue: Death to Copenhagen!

The demise has been noted, and the last rites said, so the time has come to bury the beast!

The Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory must be laid to rest. Such a final necessary conclusion has definitely arrived, as its remains are beginning to stink!

Three things had to be done to bring things to this long desired state:

First, an alternative coherent, consistent and comprehensive Physical Explanation had to be found for all of the many anomalies of the Copenhagen Interpretation. And, it has been achieved here, by the inclusion of a currently-undetectable, but definitely- existing Universal Substrate, which has been theorised using only known particles.

Second, the illegitimate amalgam of contradictory philosophic stances, underpinned by the Principle of Plurality, and excused by the regular recourse to Pragmatism, had to be totally dismantled and replaced with a new approach to Science.

Third, there has to be an explanation as to why the equations used in Quantum Theory give answers that match the Reality. And, this turns out to be nothing more complex than fitting-up pure formal relations to a situation, by using that situation’s measured data. It is a useful oft-employed pragmatic trick!

But, the real cause of this great impasse was the abandonment of theories which actually delivered the most Objective Content, and replacing such a policy with one which allocated all cause to Pure Forms, so jettisoning things with unsubstantiated features for a “pure and whole description”, that delivered reliable predictions without a trace of the actual causality involved.

Presented here is the long-delayed interment of a long dead idea. To work out where we go next, we must return Physics to a genuine materialism.

This terminating instalment is just the latest in a series of issues of SHAPE Journal to debunk Copenhagen - the rest can be found here:


The Significance of Oscillation

The Nature of Reality and the Significance of Oscillation

Our first conception of Reality was always bound to be of its human-scale entities, eminently stable and persisting forms, processes and products. For what actually exists, at greatly smaller levels, is entirely unavailable to our senses, and because such knowledge did not inform our prosperity and survival, such as is implicit in the "our-scale" things we need and use to survive or even to prosper.

But, what are those larger-scale seeming permanencies? Are they really as permanent as they appear to be? No, they are not! Indeed, the more we investigate them, the more frequently do we encounter much smaller-scale components, which are all in persisting oscillation.

Clearly, opposing effects are simultaneously effecting things, which find some sort of persisting balance in oscillation! We can see less permanent versions of similar oscillations, even at our own macro level, in the vibrations of strings, and even in those of many rigid things, but they soon lose energy to the surrounding atmosphere, and fade away.

The clearly evident vibrations, at our level, are always transient...

What are far more important, are the oscillations at the micro level, which do seem to persist indefinitely, without ever fading away! And, by far the most important form of such oscillations is the orbiting of one body around another, which can be "permanent", and actually exist at every level from the Sub Atomic to the Cosmic.

Various explanations of these orbitings, some of which can last for billions of years, have been suggested, The Cosmic persistences being said to be due to their happening in a vacuum, so there is nothing to carry away the involved energy. While, at the other extreme, in the oscillations of atoms in solids, are said to be actually maintained by the ambient-temperature energy of the surroundings, in intimate contact with the oscillating atoms.

But, what about those orbiting electrons within atoms?

They can be both promoted and demoted, from-and-to external energy sources, BUT NOT in a continuously-changing way: the orbits only exist at particular radii - all others are prohibited (the famed quantisation of orbits).

But, these same properties also persist in the supposed vacuum of Space!

Now, similarly "quantized" orbitings have been created, in the laboratory, and at the macro level, when deliberately made to occur in a liquid Substrate, under surprisingly simple conditions. Now, before anyone gets too excited, may I inform any doubters that ALL that was involved in these experiments was a single silicone oil substrate, and absolutely nothing else!

They were carried out by French physicist Yves Couder: and the writer of this paper has concluded that some of the remarkable phenomena produced there, in particular the orbitings of the produced "Walker entities", were made possible entirely by the presence of Vortices generated within the Substrate, and both maintained and even quantized by the two-way transfers of energy, between such a causing orbit and its produced vortices, due entirely to the constantly repeated orbits, only balancing-out to stability at particular orbit radii!

The significance of this, if true, will be enormous! For, this theorist has already applied these ideas to the quantized orbits in atoms, and also has explained all of the anomalies of the Double Slit Experiments, primarily by the presence of a currently undetectable Universal Substrate.

The Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory is now already mortally wounded! And, many of the inexplicable properties of "Empty Space" are also receiving physical explanations, in terms of this same currently undetectable Substrate.

And, that Universal Substrate isn't just an unsupported speculation, without a detailed explanation of its composition, that too is well under the way, and currently holding up very well.

Though this may be dismissed as unsupported speculation, I have to strongly demur - especially when the alternative, the Copenhagen stance, isn't even a Theory, but merely a formal description, bolstered by a remarkable series of speculations!

No indeed. I take my methods from those of James Clerk Maxwell, who, seeking an explanation of the then also currently undetectable Universal Substrate - The Ether - devised a purely theoretical Analogistic Model, composed of Vortices and "electrical particles", to explain the functions of that substrate, and from it managed to develop his world famous Electromagnetic Equations! He was using the only means available to the investigator deprived of sufficient access to what he required to address a given problem. He knew, very well, that our theories, at best, only ever reflect the amount of Objective Content in our explanations, and that they would inevitably be replaced by others, containing more of that Objective Content thereafter.

So, theories, which explained more than those they replaced, were entirely legitimate in maintaining the necessary ongoing ascent. But, wild speculation was still prohibited - no Gods here!

Instead, the sincere investigator would seek analogues elsewhere in Reality that were already to some valid extent understood, and attempt to weave an effective explanation out of those - That is what is being dome here. That is the postulation of a currently undetectable Universal Substrate, using everything we know about "Empty Space", and as many analogues from known and detectable substrates as possible.
Clearly, if validly established, the universal presence of a material, yet hidden Substrate, will undermine many assumptions in current physical theories.

And, the first giant Sequoia to fall will be the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory.

While the next must be all of those that insist upon totally Empty Space, anywhere!

For, with the kind of Universal Substrate that has been developed to demolish Copenhagen, a rich background for literally all phenomena has been established, and, crucially the supposed cause of Quantization becomes a generally possible physical ground, occurring everywhere.

Add to this the increasing role of both oscillations and orbitings, and their intrinsic participation in interactions with that Substrate, and a whole new approach at all scales becomes crucial.

06 March, 2018

Music and Holism

Cymatics - music meets Yves Couder?

A Gateway to the full Richness of Reality?

As soon as you consider the consequences of a Holistic World, the possibilities as compared with the usual strictly Pluralist standpoint actually explode dramatically into a host of new possibilities - not only into myriads of previously unconsidered alternatives, but also into the effects of sliding amounts of different components in all compound entities and processes, but crucially, in addition, into also including both rich joint interference patterns, and, in gradually varying mixes of different components, even how they produced consequent combined, mutually affecting, and sometimes, significantly, wholly unpredictable results.

Mere quantity changes are expanded into changing qualities, and even the emergent production of the wholly new! The traditional pluralist approach cannot deal with such in any meaningful way: we just have to accept them and find pragmatic ways of including them.

Only the holistic approach admits there is more than mere complication in the emergence of the new, and it isn/t a purely continuous process: sometimes it requires a major dissolution to even make possible a new direction of developments. And as, distinct from the old conceptions causality can act in both directions = from the old to the new, and from the new to the old. What is actually possible leaves the usual assumed combinations of fixed entities and eternal Laws well behind, on the foreshores of the Pluralist World: the majority of the vast oceans of the Holist World remain to be explored!

Now, perhaps surprisingly, the cornerstones all of Mankind's effective intellectual disciplines, ever since the Ancient Greeks, have been entirely dominated by the Principle of Plurality - a definition of the "nature of things" that always treated them all as qualitatively-fixed, which had originally been applied to the shapes of things, and related all existing shapes to combinations of individual Perfect Forms, that is as mere additions of various amounts of several of those always-the-same components. Indeed, the following major successes with such Shapes, enabled not only the construction of a powerful means of dealing with Forms in general, via Mathematics, but, was also exported to form the basis of a new reasoning with Statements of Fact, termed Formal Logic! And, within a generation, was also extended to the early attempts at Science.

Now, elsewhere, by this theorist, this has been rigorously contended as totally ignoring all Qualitative Change, and even the indisputable Evolution of things in a trajectory of qualitative developments.

For, absolutely nothing in nature is a mere Legoland-like constructional puzzle! 

Lego Moog

Clearly, the diametrically opposite Principle of Holism, with its tenet, "Everything affects everything else!" has to be much closer to the Truth, yet it hasn't been comprehensively applied to any of Mankind's Intellectual Disciplines, thus far! But, the flaws of Plurality have long been known, though never recognised as such.

The best early critique was formulated by Hegel, and converted from his idealist approach to a strictly Materialist one by Karl Marx. Yet, a comprehensive application to Physics has never yet been attempted.

Now, this is currently underway by the writer of this paper, but within his other interests, it rapidly became clear that the most appropriate area for a truly Holist Approach to be both demonstrated and even developed, just had to be in Music, and especially in Electronic Music!

After centuries of pluralistic structures in Music, particularly in the West, the forms began to "break the rules", though in a remarkable way still using instruments actually constructed to deliver the old pluralist scales. Yet, certain stringed instruments, without-frets, did allow portamento - sliding between "legal notes". And, an increasing awareness of Oriental music, (particularly that of India) revealed a much richer sonic world, with instruments expressly designed to make portamento an integral part of the artistic expression.

But in the 1960s the musical experimenters using tape loops and early electronic musical instruments, such as those used by Terry Riley with his "In C", also extended the variations to a much wider set of changes, initially at least, NOT totally under the control of the players.

Like the fractal mathematicians watching their constructions, produced by algorithms on computers, generated ever more unpredictable forms, so the musicians did likewise with combined cyclic sounds and very slowly indeed reflected another aspect of Reality.

And, in Physics, the French physicist Yves Couder, focussed primarily upon the properties of liquid media, devised analogistic experiments at the macro level, using a liquid substrate, and absolutely nothing else, to produce persisting entities called Walkers, which began to reveal qualities analogous to those occurring at the Sub Atomic level, including quantised orbits.

Now, those may not seem to be related to our thesis here, but they are! 

The Holist approach is much closer to natural Reality than Plurality, especially when phenomena occur in a Universal effectible and affecting Substrate. And, by far the most controllable discipline involving its propagation and receipt via a medium is MUSIC!

And, it has the property of being directly receiveable by the senses of human beings, especially those with a musical bent. This enables not only the discovery of the wholly new, but when the very instruments of production are directly under the investigators hands, variations can be made to listened to examples explored with immediate and direct feedback.

Now, Terry Riley and his colleagues were performing musicians rather than scientific investigators, so they were making primarily artistic decisions, as to exactly when they came in with their contributions. But, that meant that they did not have a complete idea as to how their contribution would affect the following overall piece.

Other performers since, playing the same "In C", decided to have a random number generator choosing when the various contributions would be added - you could just as easily have scientists choosing when to bring in certain elements to achieve certain sonic effects.  Clearly all three versions would be different, and reveal different "music"! But there can be no doubt that such investigations would go beyond what the more usual kinds of music would deliver.

More on this idea soon...